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Allergy and Immunology 

Allergy and immunology is concerned with the treatment of immune system problems. These illnesses range in severity from the very frequent to the extremely unusual, and they affect people of all ages and organ systems. An allergist/immunologist (commonly referred to simply as a “allergist”) is a doctor who specialises in allergies and immunology. 

  • Allergic conjunctivitis, for example, is an allergic eye illness. 
  • Allergic rhinitis, sinusitis, asthma, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, and occupational lung illnesses are all respiratory tract-related ailments. 
  • Eosinophilic esophagitis or gastroenteritis, as well as dietary protein-induced enteropathies, are gastrointestinal illnesses caused by immunological responses to foods. 
  • Atopic dermatitis, contact dermatitis, acute and chronic urticaria, and angioedema are all allergic skin diseases. 
  • Food, medicine, vaccine, stinging bug, and other factors might cause adverse reactions. 
  • Primary immunological deficiencies, such as severe combined immune deficiency syndromes, antibody deficits, complement deficiency, phagocytic cell abnormalities, or other impairments in innate immunity, as well as acquired immune deficiency, are diseases that primarily affect the immune system. 
  • Anaphylaxis and systemic disorders involving mast cells or eosinophils are examples of systemic diseases. 
  • Auto-inflammatory syndromes, for example, are diseases associated with autoimmune responses to self-antigens. 
  • Transplantation of stem cells, bone marrow, and/or organs 

Allergies and Colds: What’s the Difference? 

Allergies and colds are distinct in fundamental ways, despite the fact that they overlap many signs and symptoms. An allergy is a medical disorder in which the body reacts negatively to a food, medicine, insect bite, seasonal allergen, or environmental allergen. From itchy or watery eyes, sneezing, hives, or coughing to life-threatening anaphylaxis, symptoms can range from moderate to severe. Tightening of the airways, swelling of the face, lips, eyes, and throat, severe vomiting, and even heart failure are common signs of these severe responses. 

Patients who have had severe allergic responses in the past or who are at risk of anaphylaxis should avoid trigger allergens. They should carry life-saving emergency medication, such as epinephrine, with them at all times in case they are exposed to something they are allergic to. 

Many people are affected by allergies, colds, and viral upper respiratory tract infections, which share symptoms including nasal congestion, runny nose, and sneezing. However, there are several crucial clinical characteristics that can help us differentiate between these two extremely prevalent illnesses.


Allergies are commonly linked with considerable itching of the eyes, nose, and throat, as well as clear nasal discharge due to local histamine production. And, despite the name, allergy sufferers rarely get a fever, which is a more common symptom of viral and/or bacterial upper-respiratory illnesses.


Colds are characterised by widespread aches and pains, increased fatigue, and a scratchy throat. Another aspect that distinguishes colds is the onset of symptoms. 

Uncomplicated colds usually last 7-10 days before going away while seasonal allergies produced by pollen usually linger many weeks to months. Depending on the type of allergen — pets or dust mites in the home, for example — and duration of allergen exposure, some allergies can be more perennial in nature.